My dollars fly to Istanbul

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A man sells matches and dolls at the outdoor market in Khabarovsk
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A Nanai women sells hand-decorated slippers at the outdoor market in Khabarovsk.

By Tom Bell

March, 1993

KHABAROVSK – Igor Golubkov was working as a security guard one night and fell asleep.  When he woke up, his mink hat was gone. That’s when Igor decided to quit the security business. The hat was worth more than his annual salary.

Igor, 27, doesn’t work anymore. He stays home most days and reads detective stories. Still, he lives better than his friends. He owns a Japanese color TV, wears foreign-made clothes and eats fresh fruit. He owns a car. Considering Igor can’t even guard his own hat, how does he manage to live so well? The answer: Igor is a lucky man. His wife Lena is a stewardess.

Stewardesses are Russia’s high-flying commodity brokers. They jet around the country, buying low and selling high. The last time Lena flew to Turkey she bought two leather jackets for $100 each. Igor sold them at the Khabarovsk bazaar for $200 a piece. During trips to Moscow, Lena buys shirts, gloves, cosmetics, stockings. The Moscow stores sell higher quality goods than the Khabarovsk stores, so Lena and Igor find ready customers here.

Igor recently used some profits to buy a 1986 Toyota Sprint in Vladivostok. He paid a Russian sailor 400,000 rubles for the car. He and two friends drove it to Khabarovsk and sold it for 800,000 rubles — a profit of $850, about double the annual salary of a Russian doctor. There was some risk involved. Gangsters routinely cruise the 450-mile-long highway between Vladivostok and Khabarovsk and rob people of their Japanese cars.

Igor said he’s too ambitious to get a real job. “Young people like me don’t work in factories,” he said. “Only old people — because they don’t know what else to do.”

My friend Sergey first introduced me to Igor several weeks ago. I don’t particularly like him, but he gave me a good rate when I traded him dollars for rubles. When I visited this week, his wife served me peaches from the Crimea. I hadn’t seen peaches in four months. While I sucked down the peaches, Igor told me his wife was going to buy more leather jackets in Istanbul. He suggested I invest. If I gave them $200, he said, Lena would buy two more leather jackets, and we’d split the profits. Lena said she would get through customs by stick the dollars in her undergarments.

The idea of my money traveling 4,700 miles through seven times zones in a woman’s panties to buy some leather jackets in Istanbul seemed ridiculous. Legally, the deal violated Article 88 of the Russian criminal code, which prohibits trading with hard currency. You can get three to eight years in prison for violating Article 88, but almost everyone is trading in dollars these days. And as crazy as it sounds, Lena’s shopping trip to Istanbul is typical of the way Russians are doing business now. Only four percent of Russia’s industrial firms are privatized, and almost none produce anything big.

With Sergey’s assurance that Igor could be trusted, I lent the money. Three weeks later, not long after his wife returned from Turkey, Igor gave me my $200 plus an additional $200. This was my share of the profits.

I had become a speculator.

For most Russians, capitalism means speculatsia — buying something and re-selling it at a higher price. In Khabarovsk and other cities, sidewalk capitalists peddle Snickers bars, Nike athletic shoes, Camel cigarettes, Fischer skis, neon-colored Chinese coats, Italian spaghetti, Kazakhstan onions. Every week something new and amazing arrives on the streets. During the Communist regime, speculators were called criminals. Now the government calls them entrepreneurs. Many older people, like my Russian teacher, Evgeny Kucheryavenko, are disgusted by the speculators, blaming them for rising prices. “Why should they profit?” he asked me. “They don’t make anything. They haven’t added any value to the products.”

For my hard-working but poorly-paid friend, Dr. Andre Bevzenko, a kidney specialist, it’s depressing to look out the window of a crowded bus and see uneducated young men drive around in new Japanese cars. Dr. Bevzenko can’t even afford a pair of American-made athletic shoes. “The professional class languishes while the wheeler-dealers swim in profits,” he said. “It’s not just.”

But Igor said he deserves whatever money he makes, even if he is a lazy bum who can’t hold on to his hat.

My Friend, Sergey

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In Russia, you need friends who are able to rescue you,” said Sergey Lashonov, a 26-year-old helicopter mechanic. Then he quoted Alexander Suvorov, an 18th century Russian general: “You must defend your friend, even if you die.”

By Tom Bell

March, 1993

KHABAROVSK-  “It’s better to have 100 friends than 100 rubles,” goes the Russian proverb. Despite its enormous size, Russia is run on the basis of personal connections. People cultivate a network for protection against the risks of daily life. Whether dealing with stubborn bureaucrats or busted plumbing, they solve a problem by calling someone the know.

Like a good Russian, I’ve been building my network of friends. My most dependable friend here, Sergey Lashonov, is a short, barrel-chested 26-year-old helicopter mechanic. I met him last December at the English Club. Although he knew many English words, his accent was rough, and he spoke slowly, straining to pronounce the words correctly. His English teacher, an elderly woman who lived in his apartment building, had only taught him grammar, he explained. What he needed, he said, was practice speaking English, especially with Americans. I needed an interpreter. We struck a deal. I’d teach him how to speak English properly, and he’d work for me as an interpreter a few hours a week. But he has done more than that. He has become my Man Friday in Russia. He taught me how to talk to telephone operators so they wouldn’t hang up on me. He found families for me to stay with when I traveled outside Khabarovsk. He helped me buy train tickets and exchange money. In return, I introduced him to American businessmen, Peace Corps volunteers and a Japanese journalist. His boss at the government-owned airline, a division of Aeroflot now being privatized, has been so impressed with Sergey’s new contacts that he recently gave him a new job – “engineer of marketing.”

“What do you know about marketing?” I asked Sergey when he told me the news.

“Nothing at all,” he said, laughing. He said he hated his job as a helicopter mechanic and was eager to launch a new career, even if he wasn’t quite sure what it was.

During his first week as a marketing engineer, he took me on a helicopter trip to a half-built fishing lodge deep in the pine forests of the Bazhal Mountains, about 150 miles north of Khabarovsk. We flew there in a Mil-8 helicopter, the kind that carried combat troops in Afghanistan. A dozen construction workers came with us. The lodge will be for foreign tourists. Sergey brought me there because he wanted my advice on how to market it to Americans.

That night, the construction workers cooked up a big meal — fish, moose and potatoes. They drank vodka and sang Russian folk songs until past midnight. While they caroused, my thoughts were about the nature of my friendship with Sergey. It was a true Russian friendship in that we had grown dependent on each other. The friendships I have at home are based more on common interests and a shared sense of humor. Friendship in Russia is different.

“In Russia, you need friends who are able to rescue you,” Sergey told me that night. “If I am faithful, I can rely on them, and they can rely on me.” Then he quoted Alexander Suvorov, an 18th century Russian general. “You must defend your friend, even if you die.”

The next morning, after we flew back to Khabarovsk, we had lunch at the home of the helicopter pilot. It was a Russian lunch, meaning that it lasted for four hours and included a bottle of vodka. Then we rode the bus home. When we said goodbye to each other, Sergey was a little drunk, but he said the same thing he always says: “Call me if you need me.”

Svetlana

Svetlana Lesnikova splits her own wood.

March, 1993

By Tom Bell

KRASNY YAR – Her name is Svetlana Lesnikova. She’s a lively woman with black hair, brown eyes,  a beautiful oval Asian face. She works as a clerk in the village store and as the recreation director of the village school. A year ago, she divorced her husband, a heavy drinker, and moved down the street with their two children into the village’s abandoned dress shop. She still lives in the two-room shop with her daughters Nina, 7, and Sasha, 17.

Their father, an Udegeh hunter, still lives in the village in the same large house he and Svetlana had once shared. When she divorced him, Svetlana moved into the dress shop rather than fight for the home because she feared her ex-husband would try to take custody of the girls. The dress shop has no running water, no toilet or outhouse. The brick stove is crumbling. The holes in the floor panels are so large that the neighbor’s cat can squeeze through without much difficulty. Still, the two-room building is immaculately clean, and Svetlana has managed to create an atmosphere that is as warm and safe as any real home I’ve visited. I admire her dedication to her children and her ability to not only survive but to live so well with so little. She fascinates me. She has more physical and mental endurance than anybody I know. Frankly, she has such a strong personality she scares me a little. The question is: Am I strong enough to be with her?

She calls me, “Moy mahlinkiy rebyonok,” – my little baby – because I’m so helpless in her world. She had to show me how to fetch water from the well — the kind with a pail on a rope — and how to wash myself using only a small basin. She seems to enjoy my dependency upon her. “In Krasny Yar you would die without me,” she told me, laughing. She cooks everything from scratch over a wood stove. The only food she buys from the store is bread, butter, margarine, coffee, salt and sugar. For milk, she walks a half mile to a small village on the other side of the river, to visit a friend there who has two cows). She makes her own tea, jams and relishes from plants gathered in the woods. She distils her own wine, which she gives to village men in exchange for labor. She grows her own vegetables. She buys her meat from hunters. She doesn’t even have a trash basket — only a metal bucket that serves as a combination toilet and garbage container. The pale is emptied several times a day into the a hole in the garden. I once showed her a can of imported beer, and she looked at it curiously, wondering how the pull-tab worked. After I had drunk the beer, she saved the can for a possible future use. If any plastic bags or bottles arrive in the household, she washes and reuses them.  She gives table scraps are to her ex-husband’s dog and potato skins to her uncle’s cow.

And her energy! I try to keep up, but I can’t.  A few weeks ago, we traveled from Khabarovsk to Krasny Yar together. The trip took seven hours on a train, four hours on a bus, and then a half hour walking on the river ice dragging 70 pounds of fabric that Svetlana had bought for making clothes.  As soon as we arrived at her house, I collapsed on the couch and fell asleep. Meanwhile, she cleaned the house, fetched water from the well and prepared dinner.

Later that day, I tried splitting some logs. She took the ax from me and cut wood at almost twice the rate.

In America, she would be the baby, I told her, to establish some parity. She would have to depend on me. After all, she’s never driven a car, pushed a shopping cart, written a check or flashed a credit card. Actually, I’m sure she’ll have no problem tossing bananas into her shopping cart. But would she be happier in America than in Krasny Yar? I don’t know. She doesn’t know either.  Her dream is to live here in a real house, and she plans to borrow money from a bank to build it. She drew a picture of the house. Like the other new houses in Krasny Yar, it would be decorated with large, colorful wood carvings of the images of Udegeh folklore. She drew a floor plan. “Here’s the kitchen,” she said, “the living room, the bedroom for my girls.” She pointed to the largest room. “For me and you.” It was seductive idea — the thought of settling down in Krasny Yar with Svetlana. Was I crazy to be even thinking about it?

She’s so strong. Few women of her age leave their husbands. A single woman in Russia is an economic and social disaster. Marriage gives a woman status in the community, and a woman who leaves a husband, no matter how foolish he is, is bucking social norms. Svetlana, whose hands are calloused from chopping wood, is a rebel. Could I really live in this Third World village so far from home? But maybe that’s the point. Maybe I’ve fallen in love not just with Svetlana, but with Krasny Yar, with Barada’s fairy-tale houses, with the whole idea of living in the kind of small community I’ve always longed be a part of. America may be the land of plenty, but it’s also the land of strangers. My father, for the sake of his career, moved his family from city to city. When I grew up, I did the same. In Anchorage, the last city I had called home, the average resident has lived there for less than five years. The Udegeh have lived in this mountain valley for seven centuries.

I can buy a lot more stuff in Anchorage. But do I need to live in a place with discount warehouse stores three times bigger than all of Krasny Yar? Is it necessary to have a 50-channel cable system, a 30-minute pizza delivery service, a 25-minute oil-change, a three-minute dinner? My choices in America are endless. But what do I get? Freedom? Happiness? Or only distraction from loneliness?

I sometimes worry that Krasny Yar may just be an illusion. When I first came here, I saw paradise. Now I can see the poverty. I see it in the clumsy steps of a skinny and sickly girl — a victim of fetal alcohol syndrome —  walking down the muddy street trying to keep up with the healthier children. I see it in the joyless eyes of the 17-year-old bride, three months pregnant, marrying an 18-year-old boy who doesn’t have a job or any prospects of getting one. I see it on Svetlana’s face, which is lit by a candle because the village has been without electricity for three weeks. The candle, her last one, now just a disc of wax and nub of a wick, is starting to flicker out.

On the morning I left Krasny Yar, the sky was clear. Svetlana tucked my scarf around my neck, and we walked across the river to where a small red bus was waiting. While we walked, Svetlana said all the women in Krasny Yar are talking about her. If I don’t come back to the village on March 8th, International Woman’s Day, she said, everyone will think I’ve left her. I promised to return. Then I kissed her and climbed aboard the red bus. And I began my journey down the mountain road.

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Here I am with Svetlana and her daughter, Nina
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Svetlana lives here in a former dress shop.

Barada the Gypsy

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“Barada” in his cabin.

March, 1993

By Tom Bell

KRASNY YAR  – The functional wooden houses built during the Soviet era are still here. But there are a few new homes that look like something from the pages of a children’s picture book. Built with tall gables and mansard roofs, these structures feature colorful art work and wood carvings that depict the queens, devils and pagan gods of Udegeh folklore.

On the gates of the village Soviet of People’s Deputies, a wooden bear argues with two wooden wolves. On the roof of a home that shelters a family of 12, a wooden maiden prays to the gods for the health of the household. On the new hospital, there’s a nine-foot-long face of a woman shedding a tear.

The tall, decorative mansard roofs make the houses appear larger than they really are. The designs aren’t practical at all. The  space on the second-floor is useless except for storage. Inside, the houses are typical of the small, wooden houses found in any Russian village. There’s no indoor plumbing. A brick stove in the center of the house provides the heat.

I went to see the man who designs and builds these structures. He’s a Ukrainian gypsy whom villagers call Barada, the Russian word for “beard.” I found him in his one-room cabin — the smallest, poorest, dirtiest house in the village. He was eating salted fish and drinking vodka and surrounded by his wooden carvings. He’s a large, muscled man, with a thick black beard and expressive eyes.

His real name is Yuri Petrovich Martsenuk. People here respect him, even though on occasion they have found him passed out in their gardens.

I wanted to know more about him, but most of our conversation evolved around the nature of the soul and why I couldn’t photograph him because I might capture his soul on film.

Regarding his art, he would only tell me this: He came to live Krasny Yar because he believes that man must learn to coexist with nature and that he wanted to live in the forest. He said his buildings pay homage the spirituality of nature, and the Udegeh people understand this and understand his art. To show his appreciation, he builds homes for them using images from their culture.

wasn’t able to get much more information from Barada. Before I left, he asked me bring him carving tools from the city.  I promised him I would. Then I asked him again if I could take his photograph. He agreed this time, but only after he was able to position himself in a respectable pose for a god.

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Detail of a typical village house built in the Soviet era by the government.

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The Fat Man in the Lincoln Town Car

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   Sergei S. Eliseyev imports Japanese cars to Russia. He ships them Vladivostok and drives them to Khabarovsk in a convoy of four cars to protect themselves from the gunmen who cruise the highway. He carries 8mm pistol at all times. “A pioneer is like a child,” he said. “It’s easy to beat him down. But God protects people who protect themselves.”

February, 1993

By Tom Bell

A black Lincoln Town Car — with a plastic American eagle perched on the dashboard — cruised through my neighborhood the other day. Four men sat inside the car. I’ve been trying to meet some rich Russians lately, so while the car was waiting at a light, I tapped on the window to speak to the driver. But the light changed and the Lincoln sped away before I could say anything.

A few days later, I saw the car again. It was parked on the sidewalk in front of a Japanese restaurant, a favorite gathering place for thugs and foreigners. No one was in the car, but inside the restaurant I saw the driver, a young, tough-looking punk — maybe 20 years old — sitting at a table with five other men. They were all young bruisers except for the man at the head of the table — a fat, middle-aged man wearing a tie, a pin-striped shirt, grey slacks and Air Jordan sneakers.

“Who owns the Lincoln? I asked.

The fat man smiled and handed me his business card — “Sergei S. Eliseyev, President of Trade Industrial Co. DALS&S.” He asked me to join him for lunch. The five men sitting with him are his security guards, he explained. One of the guards — a big guy with a drooping moustache — punched his hand with his fist, to make the point clear I knew his line of work. Some of my Russian friends say they hate going to restaurants because they can’t stand to see the people who eat there — thugs, thieves and wheeler-dealers. These are the people making money in Russia these days. Eliseyev is a wheeler-dealer. He buys new and used cars, mainly from Japan, and sells them to rich Russians. He has cars shipped from Japan to the Russian port city of Nahodtka. Then he and his boys drive the cars to Khabarovsk. They drive in a convoy of four cars to protect themselves from the gunmen who  cruise the highway robbing people of their Japanese cars and extorting money. A car in Japan that sells for $22,000 is worth $30,000 in Khabarovsk. Eliseyev said it costs only $500 to ship a container with four cars across the Sea of Japan

Eliseyev was a radio electronics specialists before he entered the business world, first as administrator in a Russian-American joint venture and then as president of his own trading company. Besides cars, he has bought and sold fish, lumber and computers. But now he’s mostly buying cars; that’s where the greatest profits are. After lunch, we drove to his office. I rode in the Lincoln with Eliseyev and two bodyguards. Three other guards followed us in a Pontiac Grand Am.

At the office, located above a food store he owns, Eliseyev showed me blueprints for the 17-room mansion he’s building for himself. There’ll be a special room for a security guard. Eliseyev wouldn’t talk about why he has so many guards, except to say that he is a target because he’s rich. He pulled out an 8mm pistol from a desk drawer and gave it to me to examine. “A pioneer is like a child,” he said. “It’s easy to beat him down. But God protects people who protect themselves.”

Besides the mansion, Eliseyev plans to build a brick factory and two hotels. He’s also building houses for 12 of his employees.

I don’t know if he has the money to do all these things. A businessman who knows him described him as “a small-time guy with big ideas.” It would be easy to dismiss someone like Eliseyev as a bragger, a two-bit car dealer, a junior capitalist pig with an overblown need for security. But I’m tired of looking at poor people. Russia needs rich people like Eliseyev if it’s ever going to make the transition to a market economy. It needs rich people to build hotels and factories. It needs wheeler-dealers.

At the end of the interview, Eliseyev drove me home in his Lincoln. On the way, he talked about plans to establish vegetable farms on land he owns on the left bank of the Amur. Maybe it was all talk, but for the first time in weeks I’ve begun to think there’s hope for Russia. For this I thank the fat man with the Lincoln Town Car.

The 11-Day Itch

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I went to the (Khabarovsk) City Disinfection Clinic, where a nurse led me into a little room heated by a hot plate. She gave me a bottle partly filled with white liquid and told me to strip off my clothes. “Smear the ointment over your body,” she said. “Use it with the highest economy.

February, 1993

By Tom Bell

I feel an itch on my right thigh. And on the left side of my chest. And under my left armpit. And under my chin. I’ve just itched my left ear lobe. Now my stomach wants a scratch.

I’ve been scratching myself for 11 days, and I can’t seem to stop. Tiny, prehistoric-looking creatures — smaller than ticks but fatter than fleas — have been crawling over my body. Apparently, they burrow under my skin to lay eggs. I’ve squashed 17 and captured six. Last week, I brought some live ones to a doctor at the Khabarovsk Regional Hospital. She eyeballed my prisoners and the scabby-looking bumps that covered my body.”Chesotka,” she said, with a look of disgust.

I looked up “chesotka” in my Russian-English dictionary. It said, “scabies, mange.”

Christ. I was bound to get it, I suppose. There’s an epidemic of scabies this winter in Khabarovsk. Twenty-two public bath houses have been closed in the region. City officials estimate 80 percent of the people who live in college dormitories and workers’ hostels are infected. Scabies is new to Khabarovsk, perhaps the result of deteriorating living conditions. Entire neighborhoods here lose their water supply for days and even weeks, so people aren’t as clean as they should be, a city official said.

You can pick up scabies from pets and furniture.  I  suspect the parasites jumped on me while I was sleeping on the train. Unfortunately, there’s a shortage of medicine to treat the condition. My doctor friend, Andre, took an afternoon off from work to help me hunt down some medicine. We visited every downtown pharmacy but couldn’t find anything. Finally, I went to the City Disinfection Clinic, where a nurse led me into a little room heated by a hot plate. She gave me a bottle partly filled with white liquid and told me to strip off my clothes. “Smear the ointment over your body,” she said. “Use it with the highest economy. You can only use the minimum of ointment I’ve given you.” She left the room with my clothing. When she returned 20 minutes later, the clothes were warm — freshly baked from the disinfection machine. She said the clinic treats 40 to 50 people a day.

“All my family’s infected,” said one young man waiting for his share of the white liquid. “It probably comes from all those clothes that Chinese are bringing into Khabarovsk.”

When I told my host family that my body was host to parasites, they banished me from the apartment. I went back to my doctor, and she phoned them, trying to calm their fears. They agreed to let me back in, as long as I stayed in my own room and ate on my own set of plates. The medicine at the clinic helped, but it wasn’t enough. So I shaved all my body hair. I now look like a very tall 8-year-old boy.

Four days ago, when the creatures seemed ready to launch a new assault, I counterattacked with vinegar.  I splashed the vinegar  on my body and clamped my jaws down to avoid screaming. I turns out (and how would I know?) that Russian vinegar is 25 times more acidic than the American kind. Russians commit suicide by drinking the stuff.

I tried to wash the vinegar off my body by siting in a tub on turning on the water. But there was no cold water coming out of the faucet. On this particular day for reasons that are beyond my understanding, only steaming hot water was coming out of the faucet.  So I splashed the steaming hot water over my body for as much as I could stand it.

But at least the buggers would die, I thought,

Now I’ve got large red blotches — burned skin — on my legs, hands and stomach.

And I still itch.

Maybe I’ll go back to the disinfection clinic tomorrow. If they don’t give me some white liquid, I don’t know what I’ll do. Maybe I’ll trade my word processor for the stuff. Maybe I’ll just DRINK the vinegar this time.

Is there anything that gives me hope?

Yes.

I look on my desk, and I see a box of Kellogg’s Honey Smacks. I bought the box  today at the store. It’s the first breakfast cereal I’ve seen in five months. It’s made by the Kellogg Company of South Africa. It tastes wonderful. Maybe some familiar food will lift me out of my despair.

“Speel jy’s Snap, Crackle of Pop,” it says on the box. “Jy kan Tony, Coco monkey of selfs Smack die Honey Smacks Padda wees…”

“Die Honey Smacks Padda wees.” I don’t know what it means, or even what language it is. But it sounds right.

Die Honey Smacks Padda wees. Die Die.

I Find an Honest Man

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Valentine V. Vashnov in Vladivostok sees himself as an American-style business man.

February, 1993

By Tom Bell

Vladivostok is a lively place, with lots of cars and people running about, although I can’t say I saw much of the city, since I was always squinting and rubbing my eyes as I walked down its crowded sidewalks. Strong winds from the Pacific kept whipping up dirt and blowing it into my face. In search of shelter, I ducked into the Vladivostok customs office, which sits on the harbor overlooking the Russian Pacific fleet. That’s where I met Valentine V. Vashnov.

“Our government just kicked us again,” mumbled a clean-cut, boyish-looking man as his paced about the lobby. “They just raised the tax from 7.5 to 15 percent. Don’t they want good products for our people?”

Vazhnov is a Russian yuppie. He owns a company that imports cheap consumer goods from Hong Kong, and the tax hike wipes out his company’s profits, he complained.

I didn’t come to Vladivostok to write about taxes, however. I came here to write about what Western journalist usually write about when they come to Vladivostok — organized crime, corruption, prostitution, the general moral degradation of Russian life. This Far Eastern port city of 700,000 people is notorious for such things. But when I stumbled upon Vazhnov muttering in custom’s office lobby, I quickly realized I had found someone very unusual.

Some of my Russian friends tell me there’s no such thing as an honest Russian businessman, that the men who make money in this country are either involved in organized crime or were part of the old Communist Party apparatus. But Vazhnov does not belong with either group. He an “American-style” businessman — the kind who pays his taxes, goes to church, donates to charity, loves his wife, and joins the local chamber of commerce. Vazhnov, 31, smokes Camel cigarettes and eats Snickers bars. He speaks English with an American accent. The face of his watch is emblazoned with an eagle and the phrase, “In God We Trust.” He carries an American-designed .38-caliber revolver that shoots copper canisters filled with tear gas. (Real guns are illegal in Russia.) Vazhnov says he needs the gas pistol to protect himself from gang members who might try to extort him.

Vladivostok is a rough place to run a business.  For 50 years Vladivostok was a closed city because it served as headquarters of the Soviet Pacific Fleet. But now the city has returned to its earlier character as a wide-open international port. Last year, 1004 people, including 32 police officers, were murdered in Primorsky Krai — the strip of Russia tucked in between the Chinese border and the Japanese Sea. In the region’s biggest city, Vladivostok, the word most often on people’s lips is not democracy but mafia.  In some neighborhoods,  only residents with friendly contacts with local criminal groups feel safe.

Vazhnov has learned about the American way of business from reading U.S. magazines and autobiographies of American businessmen. (His favorite is Lee Iacocca.) Hard work, honesty, obeying the law, and competing fairly — this is how businessmen should behave, he said.

“I’m proud I’m honest,” he  said. “I’m proud to pay my taxes. If everybody would be this way, our country would change.”

I didn’t have the heart to tell Vazhnov about our savings-and-loan scandal, or the Wall Street scandals, or the decline of our heavy industry. He should be reading the autobiographies of Japanese businessmen, I thought to myself.

But I said noting. I just listened as he talked about his new business venture — importing food, vitamins and medicine from his favorite country, the United States.

He plans to ship $70,000 worth of U.S. goods to South Korea this summer and then have them transferred to another ship bound for Vladivostok. He said he’s already received approval from a bank for a $50,000 loan.

I spent a day with Vazhnov as he drove around town conducting business. Like a good American manager,  he keeps a tight schedule and constantly glances at his “In God We Trust” watch. He does almost every deal in person, since there are few telephones in Vladivostok. Even meeting with his accountant, who works at another job, required a rendezvous at a parking lot at a prearranged time.

At the end of the day, I asked Vazhnov to drop me off at the bank that’s loaning him the $50,000. I wanted to talk to the bank director.

“Don’t mention the loan to him,” Vazhnov pleaded. “He doesn’t know about it yet.”

The bank director didn’t know about the loan, all right, and didn’t know much about Vaznhov, either. But he knew Vazhnov’s wife. She works at the bank. She’s in charge of the hard currency loan department.

When I later met Vazhnov outside the bank, I asked him about this $50,000 loan.

“I’ve got a meeting. No time to talk,” he replied , scampering to his car.

That was the last time I saw Valentine V. Vazhnov.

By American standards, Vazhnov wasn’t so ethical after all, I suppose. But to the Russia mind, he would be a fool not to take advantage of his wife’s position. Is Vazhnov an honest man? He is in Russia.